Countries That Are Included In The Agreement Of Montreal Protocol

Damage to the planet`s protective ozone layer has raised unprecedented concerns and action around the world. Since the 1987 international agreement on the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances, 197 countries have ratified the Montreal Protocol. In January 2012, South Sudan ratified the Montreal Protocol, making it the first international environmental treaty to be fully ratified – a truly remarkable effort that reflects the overall acceptance and success of the agreement. The United States signed the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and was the leader in managing the treaty`s successes. Over the past 30 years, the EPA has proudly contributed to the broad coalition that has developed and implemented flexible, innovative and effective approaches to protecting the stratospheric ozone layer. In 1995, the United Nations declared 16 September as the International Day for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, also known as World Ozone Day. Out But the CFC industry hasn`t given up so easily. As far back as 1986, the Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy (an association representing the CFC industry founded by DuPont) argued that science was too uncertain to warrant action. In 1987, DuPont told the U.S. Congress, „We believe there is no immediate crisis that requires unilateral regulation.“ [38] And even in March 1988, Richard E. Heckert, President of the Bridge, wrote in a letter to the U.S.

Senate: „We will not manufacture a product unless it can be manufactured, used, processed and disposed of safely, in accordance with the appropriate safety, health and environmental criteria. At present, the scientific evidence does not indicate the need for a dramatic reduction in CFC emissions. There is no measure of the contribution of CFCs to an observed ozone change… [39] Since the Montreal Protocol came into force, atmospheric concentrations of major chlorofluorocarbons and associated chlorinated hydrocarbons have flattened or decreased. [43] Halon concentrations have continued to increase due to the release of halons currently stored in fire extinguishers, but their rate of increase has slowed and their frequency is expected to decrease by about 2020. The concentration of HCFCs has also increased drastically, at least in part, as many uses (for example. B as a solvent or refrigerant) replaced HCFCs with HCFCs. Although there have been reports of attempts by individuals to circumvent the ban.

B, for example by smuggling undeveloped CFCs to industrialized countries, the overall level of compliance was high. The 2010 statistical analysis shows a clear positive signal from the Montreal Protocol to stratospheric ozone. [44] As a result, the Montreal Protocol has often been described as the most successful international environmental agreement to date. In a 2001 report, NASA found that ozone dilution over Antarctica had remained the same thickness over the past three years,[45] but in 2003, the hole in the ozone layer grew to its second largest size. [46] In the latest scientific assessment of the impact of the Montreal Protocol (2006), it states: „The Montreal Protocol works: there are clear signs of reduced atmospheric exposure to ozone-depleting substances and some early signs of stratospheric ozone recovery.“ [47] However, a recent study suggests a relative increase in CFCs due to an unknown source. [48] The Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989 enacts Australia`s obligations under the Montreal Protocol. We control the movement of ozone-depleting substances in Australia by requiring importers and exporters of these substances to obtain a licence. These licences are required for the taker to import any substance only from a country that has ratified the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments.

To facilitate this task, the Minister of the Environment and Energy maintains a record of the countries of the Montreal Protocol and the substances for which these countries will be treated as countries of the Montreal Protocol.